Monday, July 18, 2011
6:12 AM mbelebuzz No comments
Culture is the quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters manners, scholarly pursuits etc. (www.dictionnary. Reference.Com/browse/culture). There are tow types of culture which are material cultural includes all of the physical objects that people create and give meaning to. Car, clothing, schools, computers, and books would be example. Non material culture consists of thoughts and behaviors that people learn as part of the culture they live in. It includes politics, economics, language, rules, customs, family, religion or beliefs, values and knowledge.
Society is a group of humans broadly distinguished from other groups by manual interests, participation in characteristics relationships, share institutions and a common culture (www.thefreedictionary.com/society). Society also is an organization, or association of persons engaged in a common profession, activity or interest.
Sociologist believe that human society have passed through certain broad phases of development. These include pre-modern, modern and post modern societies pre-modern society there are hunting and gathering society, pastoralist society and agrarian society (deals with cultivation of crops in feed themselves). Modern societies this included industrialism society and capitalism society. Post modernity they believe and began to lose their faith in science and technology because they are aware of damaging effect of science and technology like pollution, nuclear and risks of genetic engineering.
No culture could exist without society and equally no society could exist without culture. The relationship behavior culture and society based on its common elements of culture and society. Those common elements are:
Language: Language is a set of symbols used to assign and communicate meaning. It enable to name or label the things in our world so we can think and communicate about them. Member of society generally share a common language which facilitate day to day exchange with others. Language is both an element of culture and society, without language there would no culture and society. Example when you ask a hardware store clerk for a flash light, you don’t need to draw a picture of that instruments.
Beliefs and ideologies: Beliefs are the things members of a society hold to be true. They are the “factors” accepted by all or most members of society. Ideologies are integrated and connected systems of beliefs. Beliefs and ideologies be common element of culture and society for example North Nigerian society are Muslims their culture are beliefs in Muslims. No culture without beliefs and ideologies and no beliefs and ideologies without culture people share beliefs and ideologies in society.
Norms: Are established standards of behavior uncontained by society. All societies have ways of encouraging and enforcing what they view as appropriate behavior while discouraging and punishing what they consider to be improper behavior. In order for a norms to become significant in a given society, it must be widely shared and understood of that norms. For example “wash your hands before dinners” Then salt not kill” “Respect your elders’ Norms is a common element of culture and society which are interchangeably. No culture norms and sorely no norms also.
There are low types of norms in a society and culture formal norms generally have been written down on specify shed punishment of violators. Informal norms are generally understood but they are not precisely recorded. Mores are norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of society, often because they an body the most cherished principle of a people. Fork ways are norms governing everyday behavior fork ways plan an important role in shaping the daily behavior of members of culture/society.
Values: Are anything members of culture aspire to or hold in high eastern. Values are things to be achieved, things considered of great worth or value. We each have our own personal set of standards which may include such things as caring or fitness or success in business but we also share a general set of objectives as members of a society. Values indicates what people in a given culture prefer as well as what they find important normally right (or wrong). Values may be specific, such as having one’s parents and owing a home, or they may be more general, such as health, love and democracy.
Value is a common element of culture and society, they in hence people’s behavior and serve as criteria for evaluating the actions of others. The values of culture may change, but most remain relatively stable during any one persons life time. Socially shared, intensely felt values are a fundamental part of our lives in Tanzania.
Sanctions: are the rewards for appropriate behavior or the punishment for in appropriate behavior sections can be either rewards or punishment that follow rules, guidelines and procedures for how the reward or punishment should be given. A prison sentence for example is a negative formal section. Section B the one of the element of culture which are use in a certain society. In a society heard workers are rewarded to motivate them waking efficiently for the better of a society, also punishment penalties are used for those who act negatively. Example of penalties are fines, threats, imprisonment and shares of contempt.
Culture and society are co-existent one does not or cannot exist without the other culture and society may have some common elements but the two are not the same they are not identical the essential difference is that society is composed of people while culture consists of knowledge, ideas, customs, traditions, folkways, mores, skills, institutions, organizations and artifacts. Culture change cause societies lines change some societies by to protect themselves from the invasion of how much culture from other countries, technology in its many homes has now increased the speed or cultural diffusion and has broadened the distribution of cultural elements. Society” sociologist often use either word interchangeably to refer to the complex whole.
A) GIDDENS, A, APPEL.B. R. (2005), INTRODUCTION TO SOCIALOGY
(5TH EDITION), NORTON AND COMPANY INC. NEW YORK, LONDON
B) ROBERSON, I (1987) SOCIOLOGY, 3RD EDITION, WORTH PUBLISHERS LTD U.S.A PAGE 55.
C) WWW HELIUM.COM/ITEM/17150/BASIC SOCIOLOGICAL- CONCEPTS-SOCIETY-CULTURE (VISITED AN 16/07/2011 AT 17:25.
D) www.wikipedia.com/culure/society-relationship (visited on 16/07/2011 at 17:50)